Monday, April 17, 2006

civil supplies in nellore

VISION :

The A.P. State Civil Supplies Corporation Limited, Nellore is actively involved in distributing essential commodities under Public Distribution System on behalf of A.P.State Government in Nellore District. The Civil Supplies Corporation is having 15 Mandal Level Stock Points in the district covering entire 46 Revenue Mandals for storage of essential commodities at the Mandal Level Stock point godowns. The Corporation will store and distribute the rice stocks of various schemes like AAY, Annapurna, SGRY etc., under Public Distribution system through F.P.shops. At times the Civil Supplies Corporation is also dealing with Market Intervention programme of several commodities like Dals Tamarind, Onions, Chillies etc., for controlling of the hike in the prices of essential commodities as per the instructions of the Government from time to time.

The Corporation has also extended its activities to L.P.Gas field and it has two regular L.P.G. Dealer-ship i.e., one from IOC Limited, on permanent basis and other is from BPC Limited on adhoc basis. The Corporation is also having 4 LPG Cluster Points of various Oil Companies and they are functioning for distribution of L.P.G. cylinders under Deepam scheme in rural areas.

LPG OUTLETS

One permanent LPG Outlet of IOC at Nellore

One adhoc LPG Out let of BPC at Nellore

DEEPAM LPG CLUSTER POINTS:

Atmakur,
Naidupet
Chittalur
Udayagiri

agriculture in nellore

Agricultural Vision :

Nellore District is the Southern most coastal district of Andhra Pradesh belonging to the Southern Andhra Coastal plain. It lies approximately between 13 30’ and 15 6’ of Northern latitude and 70 5’ and 80 15’ of Eastern latitude. It is bounded on the north by Prakasam district, on the East by Bay of Bengal, on the South and Chittoor district and Chengalapattu district of Tamil Nadu and on the west by Veligonda hills, which separate Nellore district from Kadapa district. Of the seven Agroclimatic zones, the district falls in the Southern zone comprising of the districts Nellore, Chittoor, Southern parts of Prakasam and Cuddapah. The rainfall ranges from 700-1000 mm through South West and North-East Monsoons. The Maximum temperature is 36-46c and the minimum temperature is 23-25c. The District comprises mainly of Red Loamy soils which are shallow to moderately deep. The principal crops grown are Paddy,Groundnut, Cotton, Sugarcane,Millets and Horticultureal crops.



The total Geographical area of the district is 13,16,042 ha. The soils are mainly classified into two categories namely 1.Soils of Eastern ghats 2.Soils of coastal plains. The soils are predominantly sandy clay loams, sandy loams and sandy clays and the majority being red soils.



The district is generally flat and low of elevation and forms part of the karnatic plains. The sandy coastal belt extends from the sea for 5 to 7 KM interids, all along the length of the district. There are numerous back waters along the coast and best known of them is the Pulicat lake. It is roughly rectangular in shape with about 150 KM length from North to South and 100 KM breadth from East to West.



The District can broadly be devided into 2 natural divisions from North to South. The Eastern half of the district that adjoining the coastal belt is fairly fertile with large tracts of paddy cultivating areas and the coast is fringed with large tracks of shrub jungle interspersed with shrub jungles diversified with rocky hills and stony plains.



The district comprises of 46 Revenue Mandals, 12 Agril. Sub-Divisions and 3 Revenue Divisions. There are 1204 Revenue Villages, in which 1135 are inhabited and 69 are uninhabited villages in the district. Total number of Gram Panchayats are 968 with 3 Municipalities namely Nellore,Kavali and Gudur. The district occupies an area of 13,076 sq.km.[13,16,842 ha.] with density of population of 183 per sq. km.



The cultivators are 2,17,978 [9.11%] and Agricultural Labourers are 4,88,647 [20.43%] with 3,76,265 Agricultural holdings in which the holdings of SCs are 74735 and STs are 18603.

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LAND UTILISATION :

The total geographical area of the district is 13,16,042 Hect. of which total cropped area is 3,27,421 Hect. including area sown more than once (27,650 Hect.). The forests and land put to Non-Agricultural purposes constitute to about 36.36% of the total geographical area of the district. Cultivable wastes current fallows, and other fallows amount to about 18.15% which can be brought under cultivation.



CLIMATE :

Climate is generally dry and salubrious. May and June are the hottest months with the highest maximum Temperatures recorded. November, December and January months record low Temperatures.



RIVERS :

PENNAR AND SWARNAMUKHI are the two major rivers flowing from West and join in Bay of Bengal in the East, Kandaleru, Pyderu, Mallidevi, Boggeru, Pillaperu and Kalangi rivers are the major drains passing through the District.



IRRIGATION :The total area under irrigation in the district is 3,19,049 ha. Pennar Delta System of irrigation covers 1,01,300 ha. and the remaining covered by other sources in which cabin of rain-fed tanks form the bulk source of irrigation. The Areas irrigated under canal 1,11,428 Hect. under tanks 96,209 ; under Filter points 45,974, Other wells 55,729 Hect. and under other sources 9,709 Hect. totaling to 3,19,049 Hect.




RAINFALL : During Khariff from June to September the South-West monsoons are quite erroneous. The distribution also uneven leading to mid season dry spells for a long time during June to August, due to which crop losses are usual. However the recession of monsoons during September yield good precipitation nearing to normal , the normal rainfall during this period is 331 mm.



Rabi season starting from October to December yield fairly good amount of rainfall. However the rainfall during this period is influenced by depressions (Low pressure areas) in the Bay of Bengal. As a recent of these rains momentum of Agricultural operations gain momentum and large areas under paddy and other crops are covered in the district. The Normal rainfall during this period is 661 mm.

Winter period from January to February usually yields no rain. The normal rain fall during this period is 20 mm.



About 68 mm rainfall is likely during hot weather period from March to May. The rains during this period facilitate sowing of crops such as Gingelly, Bajra and also Edagaru paddy.


SOILS: of Nellore district are deep to very deep [100-150 cm] account for 23.6% of the total area [3,09,732 ha] followed by deep [100-150 cm] to moderately deep [75-100 cm] account for 20.5% of the total area [2,68,823 ha.] Moderately deep to deep soils in an area of 1,89,059 ha [14.4% ] and deep soils in an area of 1,74,365 ha [13.3%] and the other classes ranging from 0.5-4.6% of the total area. The latest percentage of soils [0.5%] belong to Extremely shallow [10-25 cm] to moderately shallow [50-75 cm] to shallow [25-50 cm] soils.


SOIL DEPTH : The depth of the soil determines the effective rooting depth for plants and the capacity of the soil column to hold and store water and supply of plant nutrients as one of the factors.


SOIL TEXTURE : This refers to the relative proportion of various size groups of soil particles i.e. Sand, Silt and Clay. This property provides a guide to understand soil water retention and availability, soil workability, nutrient holding capacity etc., Nellore District soils belong to varied textural classes ranging red sandy to sandy clay loams. Majority of the soils i.e. 30.1% [3,94,359 ha] are Sandy clay loams. The rest of the soils i.e. 54.1% are sandy to sandy clay loams with other textural classes. Only 7.6% of the soils and Rocky to Loamy sand/Sandy loams [1,00,625 ha].

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SOIL CALCAREOUSNESS : As per the available information 64.3% of soils [8,42,613 ha] are non calcareous. About 1.8% [1,68,102 ha] of soils are moderate to non-calcareous.



SOIL GRAVELLINESS : About 73,4% of soils [9,62,007 ha] are having nil to slight [>15% gravel] gravel content.



SOIL SLOPE : About 62.8% of soils [8,22,944 ha] are in the range of very gently slopping [1-3%].



SOIL EROSION : The erodability of the majority of the soils [57.6%] in the district [7,53,560 ha] are in the range of 0-5 MT/ha/yr [slight] and 30.2% of soils [3,95,572 ha] are in the range of 5-10 MT/yr [moderate]. Only 1.9% of soils [24,628 ha] are in the range of extremely severe erodability [20-40 MT/ha/yr] situated in Rapur, Kaluvaya and Ananthasagaram mandals.


SOIL FERTILITY : Majority of the soils are low in Nitrogen [>0.5% of O.C], medium in Phosphorus [20-50 Kg P2O5/ha] and high in Potash [>300 Kg K2O/ha]. Soils in Sydapuram, Chejerla, Atmakur, Vinjamur, Kondapuram, Bogole and Allur have medium Nitrogen [0.5-0.75% O.C], medium Phosphorus [20-50 Kg P2 O5/ha] and medium Potash [150-300 Kg K2O /ha]. Soils in Tada, T.P.Gudur, Kovur, Vidavalur, Udayagiri and V.K.Padu have low Nitrogen, medium Phosphorus and medium Potash. Medium N,P & K status soils are found in Naidupet, Dagadarthi, Kaligiri, Jaladanki and Kavali. Soils of Balayapalli, Ozili, Kota, Chittamur and Venkatachalam have low Nitrogen, medium Phosphorus and medium Potash. In general the soils have low to high organic carbon, low to medium available Phosphorus and medium to high available Potash.



ZINC AVAILABILITY : About 45.5% of the district soils [5,96,729 ha] are marginal in Zinc [0.5-0.75 ppm] followed by 33.9% of soils [4,43,280 ha] are adequate [0.75 – 1,5 ppm] and 17.0% of soils [2,22,700 ha] are low in Zinc [> 0.5 ppm]. Only 3.6% of soils [47,291 ha] are high in Zinc [>1.5 ppm] present in Gudur, Chillakur, Kota, T.P.Gudur, Indukurpet, Nellore, Kovur, Kodavalur and Vidavalur mandals.



AVAILABLE WATER CAPACITY : The available water capacity of 41% of soils [5,36,997 ha] is in the range of 100-150 mm per meter of soil depth followed by 200.3% of soils [2,66,128 ha] is in the range of medium to low available water capacity and 13.4% of soils [1,75,501 ha] is in the range of high [150-200 mm/m of soils] available water capacity.



LAND CAPABILITY CLASSIFICATION : This is an interpretative grouping of soils to produce field crops/to put to other uses. Soils suitable for Agriculture are Classes I to IV. There are no Class I soils in the district. However 44.9% of soils [5,87,987 ha] came under Class II with erosion/runoff and soil limitations and 31.9% of soils [4,18,142 ha] are in Class II to Class III with erosion/runoff and soil limitations. Majority of soils i.e. 36% [4,72,022 ha] are in Class II with soil limitations. Only 11.1% of soils [1,25,106 ha] are suitable for grazing forestry and unsuitable for cultivation.

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FARMING SITUATIONS :




About 15 farming situations are identified in the district based on the soil type, inspection source and suitability of the Crops.



PENNAR CANALS AND FILTER POINTS : The total area under the situation is 18219 ha spreading in Butchi, Kovur, Vidavalur, Kodavalur, Indukurpet, T.P.Gudur, Muthukur and Sangam mandals. The soil types are coastal sands and deltaic alluvium. These areas are irrigated during Edagaru [May-Sept.] under canals with the support of filter points. The crops raised are paddy in Edagaru and Rabi. Summer pulses and cotton in paddy follows is also usual practice. The productivity levels are 3400 Kg/ha in pa ddy 300 Kg/ha pulses and 350 Kg/ha in Cotton Potential increase in yield is possible by 15-20%.


PENNAR CANALS : The area covered under the situation is 15316 ha in Kovur,Kodavalur,Vidavalur, Butchi, Sangam, Allur, Dagadarthi, Indukurpet, T.P.Gudur, Muthukur, Nellore, Bogole, Kavali and Jaladanki. Coastal sandy clay loams and deltaic alluvial soils are the usual types. Irrigation during Khariff is under channels of Eastern channel, Jaffer sahib canal and surveypalli canal. Green manure and paddy during Khariff and Pulses during Rabi are common crops yield potential is about 2800 Kg/ha in case of paddy,10657 green leaf/ha in case of green manure and 400 Kg/ha in case of pulses. There is a potential gap of 15-20% in yields.


PENNAR CANALS[Rabi] : An area of 48984 ha is usually covered under this situation during Khariff, Rabi, and summer also with the crops such as Green manure, Paddy and Pulses. The situation covers mandals such as Kovur, Kodavalur, Vidavalur, Butchi, Allur, Indukurpet, T.P.Gudur, Muthukur, Nellore and Venkatachalam. The gap in yield is about 20-25% in this situation against the normal yields of 4300 Kg/ha in paddy during Rabi and 500 Kg/ha in pulses during summer.


PENNAR CANALS[Up-Lands] : Comprising of soils like Red loamy and Red soils under Kavali canal and D.R.Canal [Up Lands] in Dagadarthi,Bogole,Kavali and Jaladanki mandals in an area of 15006 ha. Green manure in Khariff,Paddy in Rabi and Pulses in summer is the usual cropping sequence with the yield Potential of 3300 Kg./Hect. in paddy during Rabi and 400 Kg./Hect. in Pulses during summer with a potential gap of 20%.


TANKS :fed by Canals : Coastal sands and red loams are the predominant soil types extending in an area of 7788 ha.in five Mandals Viz. Anantasagaram, Nellore, Venkatachalam, Podalakur and Manubolu. Seasamum, Pulses during Khariff and Paddy during Rabi are usual cropping sequence. The yields are 300 Kg./ha. In Sesamum, 400 Kg./ha. In Pulses and 3400 Kg./ha. in paddy during Rabi, with a gap of 20%.



RAINFED TANKS (RED SOILS ) : An area of 31389 ha.is covered under this situation . The red loams under this situation are extended in about 14 Mandals with irrigations from tanks. The Mandals are S.R.Puram, Udayagiri, Varikuntapadu, Duttaluru,Marripadu, Vinjamur, Kaligiri, Kondapuram, Jaladanki, Kavali,Bogole, Dagadarti, Allur and Sangam. Paddy as a single crop during Rabi forms the principal crop. The yield is 2800 Kg./Ha. having a potential gap of 25-30% which can be fulfilled under optimum weather conditions.



RAINFED TANKS (BLACK SOILS ) : Black soils to the tune of 23077 ha. in Atmakur, A.S.Peta, Podalakur, Chejarla, Kaluvoya, Rapur, Sydapuram,Gudur and Manubolu having irrigation from tanks. Paddy as single crop during Rabi is the main crop. Potential yield is about 3000 Kg./Ha. with a large gap of 25-30%.


RAINFED TANKS (SANDY CLAY ) : Characterised by 500-600 mm rainfall with sandy clays and coastal sandy soils in an area of 49653 ha.spread over 13 Mandals viz. Chillakur, Vakadu,Kota,Chittamur,Naidupet, Pellakur, Ozili, Sullurpet, D.V.Satram, Tada, Venkatagiri, Balayapalli and Daiili. Single crop, paddy is raised during Rabi. Average yield is 3100 Kg./ha. Potential gap that can be corrected is about 25-30%.


TANKS SUPPORTED BY WELLS : Red loams to sandy clay loans in an area of 5150 ha.with Khariff paddy and Summer pulse crops form the situation. The Mandals covered are Atmakur, Anantasagaram, Podalakur, Kaluvoya, Sydapuram, Gudur,Manubolu, Chillakur,Ozili, Sullurpet, D.V.Satram and Tada. Yields are 3400 Kg./Ha. in paddy and 400 Kg./ha. in pulses are normal, but gap about 20% still exists.


WELLS : Red loams and sandy clay loams in 38 Mandals fall under this situation having an area of 29889 ha.. Varied cropping sequence in the character of the situation. Both Khariff and Rabi seasons are active with crops such as Groundnut, Pulse, Chillies, Sunflower etc. Orchards crops are also raised under this situation. Productive levels are fairly high with 1500 Kg./ha.in Groundnut 400 Kg./ha. in Pulses during Khariff. Rabi yields are still higher with 2000 Kg./ha. in Groundnut 1500 Kg./ha. in sunflower and 1700 Kg./ha. in Chillies. However there is still a yield gap of 15 to 20% in all these crops. Best management practices will fill up the gaps.



FILTER POINTS AND TUBE WELLS : Varied cropping sequence in 38 Mandals having different soil types. Commercial crops such as Oil palm, Jasmine, Sugarcane are widely grown. Aqua culture is the main characteristic of the situation. Agricultural Crops like Paddy during Khariff and Groundnut during Rabi are the main crops suitable and are grown. Yield levels are also manageable. Present yields are 3200 Kg./ha. paddy in Khariff and 2000 Kg./Ha. Groundnut in Rabi are usual. Yield gap is also high for various management gaps. There is still a possibility of increase in yields by 25% under best management practices.

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RAINFED ( REDSOILS ): Red loams with rainfall range of 950-1000 mm in S.R.Puram, Udayaigir, Marripadu, V.K.Padu, Duttaluru, Vinjamur, Kaligiri,Kondapuram, Jaladanki, Kavali, Atmakur, Venkatagiri, Sydapuram, Balayapalli and Dakkili, fall under the situation, covering an area of 18212 ha. The crops suitable are Sesamum, Redgram, Cotton during Khariff, Tobacco,Groundnut and pulses during Rabi, Fodder jowar is also raised in these tracts. The Yields are optimum to low owing to the low fertility index. Present levels are 300 Kg./Ha. In sesamum, 350 kg./ha. Redgram 300 Kg./ha. Cotton during Khariff and 800 Kg./ha. Tobacco, 500 Kg./ha. Pulses, and 1000 kg./ha. Groundnut during Rabi season. Yield gaps are still pronouncing to the extent of 15%.


RAINFED ( Black Soils ) : Mainly Black soil areas having rainfall range of 900-1000 mm in A.S.Peta, Podalakur, Rapur, Chejarla and Kaluvoya form the situation. Crops raised are Sesamum, Redgram,Cotton in Khariff and Tobacco and Pulses in Rabi. 300 Kg./ha. Sesamum 350 kg./ha. Redgram, 300 kg./ha. Cotton in Khariff are the normal yields. During Rabi the yields are 800 Kg./ha. Tobacco and 500 Kg./ha. Pulses. Yield gap found is about 15%.


RAINFED ( Sandy to Sandy Clay ) : Total area under the situation is 8004 ha. in 12 Mandals viz. Bogole, Allur, A.Sagaram, Gudur,Ozili, Chillakur, Naidupet, Chittamur, Vakadu, Sullurpet, Tada and D.V.Satram. The soils are red gravel to sandy clay loams receiving a rainfall of 1000 to 1100 mm. Principal crops raised are Sesamum, Redgram and Cotton during Khariff, Pulses, Groundnut and Fodder jowar during Rabi. The yields during Khariff are 300 Kg./ha. Redgram ; 300 Kg./ha. Cotton. Rabi Yields are slightly higher.


LIFT IRRIGATION : Coastal sands and red loams in about 20 Mandals form the situation. Only one crop i.e paddy is grown during Rabi in an area of 5122 ha. The Yields are 3000 Kg./ha., but the gap of 30% is yet to be achieved.

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RESEARCH STATIONS:


a) Agriculture Research Station, Nellore

b) Agriculture Research Station, Podalakur

c) Citrus Research Station,Petlur, Venkatagiri Mandal.

d) Agriculture Research Station, Kavali




a) Agricutlure Research Station, Nellore:


The Agricultural Research Station, Nellore was originally established as Government Paddy Farm during 1937 at Butchireddipalem 15 km away from Nellore in the composite Madras state on leased lands to improve the local Molagolukulu paddy varieties under cultivation and later designated as Rice Research Station. The Research Station was shifted to Nellore on permanent lands during 1961. This station is functioning as a sub-center of the National Agricultural Research Project[NARP] from 21-8-1985 in southern zone of Andhra Pradesh.



MANDATE : With the reorganization of research priorities, the Agril.Research Station,Nellore is entrusted with Rice Research as the main function and to serve as verification center for Rice fallow cotton, pulses, groundnut and sugarcane. The thrust areas entrested are sustainable Agriulture, Farming Systems, export oriented agriculture, Reclamation of Salt affected soils.



i] Main functions : Rice and Rice Based cropping systems and tankfed cropping systems.

ii] Verification function : Rice fallow cotton, pulses, groundnut,sugarcane.



OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH:



1. RESEARCH :

A] RICE :

1. Breeding programme to develop blast resistant long, medium and short duration rice varieties suitable for different situations in southern zone of Andhra Pradesh.

2. Development of High yielding rice varieties suitable for Export.

3. Development of Samba Mashuri type grain quality genotype with resistance to blast, BLB and BPH.

4. Agronomic Research to develop suitable Rice Based cropping systems for southern zone besides determining the management practices for Rice.

5. Farming systems Research.

6. Research in entomology/Pathology to formulate effective pest/disease management practices in rice besides screening the breeding material.

7. Soil test crop response scheme to establish the relationship between soil test value and crop response to fertilizers, for calibrating fertilizer recommendation.

8. Seed Production.


(B) Rice Fallow Pulses :

Evaluation of new cultures in Greengram /Blackgram



(C ) Rice Fallow Cotton :

Evaluation of new cultures of cotton in rice fallow.



(D) Groundnut / Oil Seeds

Evaluation of new cultures of Groundnut & Gingelly.



II. Extension :

Adoptive Research

Diagnostic Visits/Field visits.

Plant Health clinic

Kisan Melas, Rytu Sadassulu & AMC level farmers training programmes.

Training programmes for Farmers/Agricultural Officers.

Village adoption.

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ACHIEVEMENTS:


Crop Improvement Variety Year of release


Varieties released : BCP 1 1948

BCP 2 1948

BCP 3 1950

BCP 4 1950

BCP 5 1951

BCP 6 1965

Bulk H9 1965

Kotha Molagolukulu.72 1977

Kotha Molgaolukulu 74 1977

Pinakini 1987

Tikkana 1988

Simhapuri 1991

Sreeranga 1991

Swarnamukhi 1991

Bharani 1996

Sravani 1996

Swathi 1996

Penna 1996

Vedagiri 2000

Apporva 2002

Pre-release culture : Short duration NLR. 34452

Blast resistant cultures NLR. 34449

With BPT.5204 seed NLR.34450

Quality

Varieties to learnt to RTV Short duration Bharani

Long Duration Vedagiri

Cultures under minikit testing Long duration NLR 33892

NLR 33810

Short duration NLR 34303




b) Agriculture Research Station, Podalakur:


Agricultural Research Station,Podalakur was established in the year 1964 at Chejerla on leased lands. Later,it was shifted to Podalakur on 1-10-1965. The farm area comprises 11.80 ha. of which 10.46 ha. is under cultivation of this, 1 ha. Land was handed over to Department of Agriculture to establish “Mother Nursery” of Nallavagu watershed. The Station lies between North Latitude 14.22’ – 14.26’ and East Longitude 79.44’. The soils of the farm are black with a PH of 8.5. The average rainfall ranges from 900-1000mm. One third of the total rainfall is received during south-west monsoon and the remaining during North-East monsoon. The distribution of rainfall is quite erratic, precaricus and mostly unfavourable to kharif crops. Hence, there is a practice of taking single crop during Rabi season under rainfed conditions keeping the land fallow during Khariff.



The predominant soil type in the region is alfisol with a few patches of black soil here and there. They are medium to deep with varying amounts of lime [Upto 15%] and become slushy on receipt of rains. They form heavy clods and become hard on dyring. It takes longer time for preparation of such lands. The soils are low in N and P2O5, but adequate in available K2O.



Since this region is mostly influenced by North-East monsoon, sorghum crop used to be the predominant one in the past. Due to low monetary returns and chage in good habits, the area of the sorghum has been fast decliming year by year and the farmers have switched over to short duration remunerative crops such as Greengram, Blackgram, Redgram, Sesamum and sunflower and also other commercial crops like chillies.



The sorghum and short duration pulse crops will be raised during first fortnight or second fortnight of October depending upon the receipt of rains. Harvesting of these crops will be completed by March and from them onwards, the land is kept fallow till the next Rabi season.



OBJECTIVES OF THE STATION :


1. To develop suitable high yielding varieties of Greengram,Blackgram and

Redgram.



2. To identify dual purpose sorghum varieties/hybrids suitable for Nellore

Prakasam Districts.



3. To identify suitable varieties of sesamum, Soybean and varieties/hybrids of

sunflower.



4. To develop suitable cropping system both for kharif and rabi season under

rainfed conditions.



5. To work out suitable plant protection stragtegies for the management of pests

and diseases of pulses, oilseeds and sorghum.

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ACHIEVEMENTS:



Ever since the inception of the Research station, the Research work was carried out on sorghum to cater the needs of the farmers in the surrounding mandals primarly and farmers of other areas in the zone secondary. In the process several varieties viz. D-340, 168 and hybrids viz., CSH-6, and CSH-9 were identified as suitable for the tract and recommended for the cultivation.



In the year 1993, a promising culture PJ.890 was released as “Podalakur Jonna.I” which is a tan type, dual prupose high yielding variety. There was gradual dwindling in area and hence the research was started in pulses at Agricltural Research Station, Podalakur to replace the Sorghum area. Consequent to this, in Blackgram two promising cultures viz., Podalakuru minimu (PBG-1) a selection from pottempadu local and Penusila (PBG-107) a cross derivative was released during the year 2002.

In Blackgram very few varieties are available but they are photoinsensitive are not high yielding. To develop photoinsensitive varieties with high yielding potential, sixteen single plant selections were made and advanced to preliminary yield testing. Two promising Blackgram varieties were released during the year 2002 viz., PBG-1 (Podalakuru minumu) and PBG-107 (Penusila). The culture PBG-1 is a photoinsensitive and high yielding but possesses dull grain. The culture PBG.107 is suitable for Rabi and high yielding and dull grain. Apart from Krishnaiah(LBG.17) ,Teja(LBG.20) , Prabhava (LBG.402),LBG.611 and LBG.648,LBG.685 were identified in Blackgram as suitable to this zone and recommended for cultivation.



In Greengram, the varieties viz.,ML.267,LGG.410,LGG.460 and LGG.450 were identified as suitable varieties for Rabi and were recommended for cultivation in the zone. But for summer and Khariff LGG.407, LGG.410 and LGG.460 were identified is most suitable varieties and recommended for cultivation.



In Redgram the varieties viz.,Palnadu (LRG.30)ICPL.85063, Abhaya(ICPL.332) MRG.66 and No.17 were identified as suitable for cultivation in the zone. The varieties Palnadu was found to be highly suitable for both Khariff and Rabi seasons where as ICPL.85063 and Abhaya were found to be suitable for Rabi Cultivation.




Among other crops viz.,Soybean (MACS-210 & Hardee), Sesamum (Gowri, Madhavi, Rajeswari and YLM-17) mustured (Kranthi,Bhavani and PT.303), Sunflower(Manjeera), Cowpea(C.152) and coriander (CS.6) were identified as suitable and recommended for cultivation in the zone. But the farmes are more interested to cultivate Blackgram.



Under the development of suitable cropping system in rainfed conditions several crops were studied both in Khariff and Rabi Seasons. Among all the crops studied Greengram and Blackgram were found to be more remunerative crops during Rabi Season



c) CITRUS RESEARCH STATION, PETLUR,VENKATAGIRI MANDAL:


Citrus Research Station, Petlur was established during July, 1991 with the mandate to conduct research on Citrus and Citrus based cropping systems.



I Mandate / objectives.

1. To serve as repository of Citrus Germplasm.

2. To develop improved cultivars in Acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia with

disease resistance and high yield.

3. Standardization of production technology :

· Cropping Systems.

· Root stock evaluation.

· Regulation of flowering.

· Water Management.

· Macro and Micro nutrient requirement and fixing leaf nutrient

· Standards.

· Integrated nutrient management with special reference to organic farming, bio-fertilizers etc., for sustaibale production.

4. Survey and monitoring of Pests/Diseases/ Nutritional disorders of Citrus

orchards.



5. To develop Integrated Disease Management (IDM) practices for Citrus

with special reference to canker and root rot diseases.



6. To develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices for Citrus with

special reference to leaf miner, black fly and mites.



7. Supply of quality planting material of acid lime.



RESULTS OF RESEARCH :


HORTICULTURE :


1. Collection, maintenance and evaluation of Citrus germplasm : About 105 accessions in the Rutacea family is maintained. It comprised of 20 accessions in Sweet Orange, 6 Sour Orange, 6 Grape fruit, 4 Pummelo, 7 Rangpur lime, 9 acide lime, 3 lemons, 8 mandarin types, 13 miscellaneous citrus species, 5 genera (other than citrus) 10 hybrids


2. Studies on the effect of drip irrigation :

In the 7 years old acid lime seedlings, when irrigated with 50% CPE through drip system gave almost equal yield 70.20 kg/p/y (1891 Nos.) by utilizing 31.268 l/p/y when compared with yield of basin irrigation i.e., 70.30 kg/p/y (1997 NOs.). However the quality of irrigation water is almost double 58.900 l/p/y.


3. Root stock trial in Acid lime :

Among the 6 root stock trial in acid lime budlings on Rangpur lime recorded with highest yield of 10.5 kg/p (216 Nos.). Closely followed by Gajanimma root stock with 9.7 kg/p (205 Nos.) at the age of 3 ½ years under drip irrigation.


4. Response of NPK in prereleased CRS-1 Acid lime selection :

In the 6 year old seedlings of pre-released acid lime selection CRS-I, application of 2000 : 400 : 800 g of NPK/p/y produced significantly higher yield of 83.1 kg/p/y (2041 Nos.).


5 Acid lime varietal trial :

Seventeen released and pre-released varieties of acid lime seedlings were planted during January, 2003 for evaluation and established well.


MANGO: Consisting of 6 Hybrids, 4 Table varieties, 1 Juicy variety, 4 Regular varieties, 2 Pickle varieties, 1 Offseason variety. Among the hybrids, Neeleshan gave highest yield with 55.5 kg/p [217 Nos.] followed by Neelgoa with 52.5 kg/p [238 Nos.] Among the varieties. Pulihora out yielded with 62.4 kg/p [487 Nos.] followed by Neelum 56.5 [378 Nos.]. Off-season yield were recorded in both Royal special and Allipas and 3.5 kg/p [25 Nos.]



MISCELLANEOUS FRUIT AND MINOR FOREST PRODUCE :


This comprise of 25 types of fruits and minor forest produce consisting of Ber [3], Guava[5], Sapota[5], Aonla [2], Jack[2] Seethaphl [1], Custard apple hybrid [1], Stargoose berry [1] Tamarind [1], Carissa edulis [1], Carissa Carandas[1], Jungly badam [1], Fig[5], Annato[1], Buchnania latifolia [1]. Singapur cherry[1], West Indian Cherry[1], Antidesma bunius[1], Seimarubs [1], Soapnut[1], Contry almond[1] and Vanilla[1]. To the already existing crop species, passion fruit, Antidesma Buniun. Aallahbad safeda in guava, BSR-1, NA-7 in Aonla. Kalipatti & PKM-1 in Sapota were added. The yield recorded in one of six Urigam [Tamarind] graft was recorded 5.0 kg fruit weight pods/plant at the age of 5 years. Singapoor cherry 100 g/p [one year old]. Annatto 300 g pods/p [100 g] [one year old]. Sapota kalipatti 11.2 kg/p [254 Nos.] Pala 51 kg/P [1195 Nos.] and Stargoosberry 5.7 kg/P.




DRY LAND HORTICULTURE :

This consisting of 40 clones of Tamarind 29 clones of Jamun and 10 clones of wood apple. Among the 40 clones of Tamarind flowering was observed in 40% of clones during November,2002 and June, 2003 but fruit set was not there in the November,2002 flowering and yet to be observed in June, 2003 flowering.



d) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH STATION : KAVALI

The farming situation in which the Agricultural Research Station, Kavali is located is lateritic soils – Rainfed and irrigated. The average annual rainfall is around 978 mm and 60% of which is normally received in North East Monsson. The soils in the agro-ecological situation are shallow to deep, lateritic sandy loam to gravelly sandy clay, loam, acidic to neutural in reaction, low in organic matter and nutrients, undulating, hilly and sloppy. The total area under the farming situation covers 14,229 ha. The major rainfed crops grown are millets, pulses, groundnut, tobacco and mostly fruit and plantation crops. Tanks are the major source of irrigation where rice is the major crop grown followed by groundnut and chillies.


The Research Station serves the needs of all dryland farmers of Nellore and Prakasam districts of medium rainfall areas. There are approximately 4.89 lakh ha [Nellore 2.53 lakh ha + Prakasam 2.36 lakh ha] of marginal drylands in Nellore and Prakasam districts of Zone. These lands are not suitable for arable Agriculture. Suitable and economically feasible agro-forestry systems have to be developed to provide steady income to the farmers and to enhance the nutrient status and water holding capacity of the soils.


Another farming situation in the area of Research Station is coastal sands – rainfed condition. The agro-ecological situation occupies an area of 7208 ha[Nellore 5,106 + Prakasam 2,192 ha]. The average annual rainfall is 1172 mm experiencing commonly depressions and cyclones during September- November months. The soils are loamy sands to fine – coarse sands with poor water holding capacity. The major rainfed crops are groundnut, Blackgram and Casuarina, Eucalyptus and fruit crops Cashew and Mango.



The constraints identified in both the farming situations mentioned above are:


1. No specific package of practices for oil seed, pulses, fruit and plantation crops are available for these lands.


2. Lack of suitable agro-forestry systems for improving the productivity of vast areas of marginal drylands.


3. Non-availability of quality grafts of mango, cashew, sapota, guava etc.,


The main and verification functions assigned to the Agril. Research Station, Kavali are



Main functions Verification functions




1. Agro-forestry and farming 1. Pulses and oilseeds.

Systems.



2. Progeny orchard cum nursery for

mango,cashew, sapota,guava and

citrus.

^ TOP

CROP PRODUCTION SCHEMES :



SOIL TESTING : About 25000 soil samples are targeted for collection and anlysis during the year 2004-05 in order to provide judicious fertilizer application for various crops to cut short the cost of production. As such 26491 samples have been collected so far for analysis. The fertilizer recommendations will be provided to the farmers based on the analytical data.



Further during the first and second phases of Macro Planning 37338 samples have been collected and analysed duly providing fertility index for all the soils types in the district, for preparation of village fertility index maps. These fertility index maps will be displayed in each village for the benefit of farmers.




RECLAMATION OF PROBLEM SOILS



A] SUPPLY OF GYPSUM :

Thkere are about 12000 hectares of problem soils in the district with PH range of 8.7 to 10.5, and E.C. range 3 to 9.8 m.mohs/cm2 which require corrective measures for raising of regular crops. Accordingly Gypsum is proposed to be supplied @ 5 tonns/Ha on 75% subsidy Total proposed quantity to be supplied is 9350 MT.



B] SUPPLY OF ZINC SULPHATE

About 52.5% of soils in the Nellore District are deficient in available Zinc which hamper the normal yields even under most favourable conditions also.



Therefore as a corrective measure Zinc in the form of Zinc sulphate is proposed to be supplied on 50% subsidy at the rate of 50 Kg per Hactare.

Total proposed quantity to be supplied is 750 MTs.



C. SUPPLY OF GREEN MANURE SEED : To improve the physical structure moisture retension, and tolerance of the crops to the drought, a soil is to be replenished with sufficient quanityty of organic carbon. To achieve this green manure crops are to raised for insitu trampling of the crop into the soil for organic carbon accumilation.



Therefore green manure crop seeds such as Daincha,Sunhemp,Pillipesara are proposed to supplied to the tune of 8000 Qtls. on 50% subsidy.


D. VERMI COMPOST : To substitute the compost which is not available in sufficient quantities in the villages for crop culture varmi compost is suggested by Research. Accordingly selected farmers are trained in preparation of Varmi Compost in 12 mandals on 75% subsidy.




SEED VILLAGE PROGRAMME :

In order to provide good quality seed of different crops to the farmers in a village itself, 146 qtls of foundation seed of paddy is proposed to supply to the selected farmers in a village so that the quality seed thus produced will be distributed to the farmers of the same village.




ON FARM EXTENSION DEMONSTRATION : The main objective of On-Farm Extension Demonstration is to obtain higher yields with less investment, duly supplying the critical inputs at appropriate time. In Rice 272,(260 Work Plan + 12 APERP), Pulses crops 15, Groundnut 10, Castor 10, Sunflower 5 and Gingelly 5 On-Farm Extension Demonstration have been allotted to Nellore District.


INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT : With an objective of less use of Pesticides on crops, increase in the population of natural enemies (Predators) and taking up to plant protection with different methods two On-Farm Demonstration have been allotted each one or Groundnut and Gram crop.


FARMER’S FIELD SCHOOLS : To create awareness among the farming community about the plant protection using the techniques of less usage of pesticides, increasing the population of natural enemies, 25 Farmer’s Field Schools have been allotted.


SRI CULTIVATION : With less irrigation, obtaining of higher yields have been ensured under this scheme. This is highly beneficial to the Paddy farmers, where sufficient irrigation is not available. During 2004-2005, 39 demonstration are proposed to organize in the district. The Row Weeder implement needed for ‘SRI’ cultivation is proposed to supply to the farmers on subsidy.


FLY ASH DEMONSTRATION : With a view of increase the Physical condition of Soil and to increase the Water holding capacity of Soil, supply of Fly Ash at 10 MTs/Hect. has been proposed to farmers duly allowing 75% subsidy on transport cost. During 2004-2005, this scheme has been proposed to implement in 60 hects.


QUALITY CONTROL : To maintain quality in Seeds, Fertilizers and Pesticides. Seed Act, FCO and Pesticides Acts are being implemented. For 2004-05, 250 Seed Samples, 522 Fertilisers Samples, 269 Pesticides Samples have to be drawn and sent for analysis at respective Laboratories.


FARMER’S TRAININGS : Farmers Training Centre, will give training to the farmers at 40 trainings on Paddy, 8 on gram crops, 2 on Groundnut and 40 on APERP, on Integrated nutrient Management, Integrated Pest Management, Integrated Water Management and Integrated Weed Management. Department of Agricultural is also conducting 132 trainings to the farmers in selected villages with the Co.operation of Agricultural Market Committees. Through these trainings 10,000 farmers have been proposed to train in Nellore District.


WATERSHEDS : Two Watersheds have been arranged in Chalamcharla and Chintalapalem of Kavali mandal. As part of this programme, construction of Check dam, Rock fill dams and Farm ponds will be taken up within the periphery of Watershed area, Greengram and Blackgram demonstration would also be organized.


CROP ESTIMATION SURVEY :

As per the Crop estimates surveys conducted in Nellore District for Khariff,2004 a quantity of 53,997 MTS. of Rice ; 1823 MTS. of Bajra, 11498 MTS of Groundnut and 609470 MTS of Sugarcane was produced. For Rabi 2003-04, a quantity of 354855 MTS of Rice; 14109 MTS of Groundnut, 1122 MTS of Greengram, 5511 MTS of Bengalgram; 9957 MTS of Chillies, 22723 MTS of Sunflower and 11515 MTS of Tobacco was produced.


The above production was obtained with the productivity of 3033 Kg.of Rice.1791 Kgs. Of Bajra ; 1904 Kgs. Of Groundnut, 95844 Kgs. Of Sugarcane for Khariff,2003 like wise for Rabi,2003-04, the productivity of 2570 Kg. of Rice, 1595 Kg.of Groundnut, 269 Kg.of Greengram, 303 Kg.of Bengalgram,2475 Kg.of Chillies, 1276Kgs. Of Sunflower and 1081 Kg.of Tobacco was recorded.


RYTU MITRA GROUPS :

To bride the gap between the farmers and Agricultural Extension wing and also to provide information on Marketing and allied activities, and to provide self sustainability in credit linkages as self help groups, 7480 Rytu Mitra Groups have been organized in the district


5) HELP LINE : On 23rd May, 2004, helpline cell has been formed in the Offices of District Collector and in the Office of the Joint Director of Agriculture, Nellore to receive the representations from thefarmer’s in distress and to avoid suicidal deaths by counseling them. Out of 424 representation received, so far 238 representations have been forwarded to the respective departments and redressed.




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